Need for more than one observer. Study of situations that cannot be artificially set up. They might be important enough to provide alternative explanations for the effects, for example, confounding variables. Interview Used to gain in-depth information and individual views.
Unstructured, casual interviews may encourage openness in answers. Natural environment with independent variable manipulated by researchers.
Difficult to replicate - cannot control extraneous variables.
More natural behaviour occurs if people are unaware of observation. Natural changes in independent variable are used - it is not manipulated. The researcher does not manipulate variables and does not interfere with things - they try to remain inconspicuous.
Lack of correlation may not mean there is no relationship, it could be non-linear. Cannot assume cause and effect, strong correlation between variables may be misleading. Studying of animals that cannot be observed in captivity. Variable the experimenter manipulates - assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable.
Weaknesses Calculating the strength of a relationship between variables. Extraneous variables Ex Vs: Use attitude scales to test strength of feeling. Interviews are recorded for later, in-depth analysis. Carry out a pilot study first, a test run, making changes if needed.
Difficult to analyse if unstructured and qualitative in nature. For example, clinical tests used in psychiatry.Summary notes, videos, factsheets and past exam questions for AQA Psychology A-level Research Methods topic. The Science of Psychology and Its Research Methods Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology and Its Research Methods Outline I.
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Revision for AQA Psychology AS and A-Level Papers, including staightforward study notes and summaries of the relevant theories and studies, past papers, and mark schemes with example answers. Fully updated for the summer term. AQA A-Level Psychology past exam papers and marking schemes, the past papers are free to download for you to use as practice for your exams.
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