Convection current hypothesis

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Is boiling water a convection current? As time goes by, some of the blue water begins to sink, and after five to ten minutes, all of the water turns a lighter shade of blue. This has led to the hypothesis that mantle plumes contribute to continental rifting and the formation of ocean basins.

Mantle plume

Jason Morgan further developed the hypothesis of mantle plumes. Heat up air or water and Convection current hypothesis convection curent wil form as the heated air or water starts to move upwards.

A hot mantle plume is predicted to have lower seismic wave speeds compared with similar material at a lower temperature. Over time, He in the upper atmosphere is lost into space. It is the layer surrounding the outer core of the earth. Its regular, time-progressive chain of islands and seamounts superficially fits the plume theory well.

What is a convection current?

Thus, although unusually low wave speeds have been taken to indicate anomalously hot mantle beneath "hot spots", this interpretation is ambiguous. An uplift of this kind occurred when the north Atlantic Ocean opened about 54 million years ago.

Three stages of the thermal convection currents: Note that the core is at the top of the diagram and the crust is at the bottom. Water of different temperatures can move hundreds of miles! Seismic anomalies are identified by mapping variations in wave speed as seismic waves travel through Earth.

Very little is produced, and little has been added to the Earth by other processes since then. In this concept, two largely independent convective processes occur in the mantle: A convection current is a form of transfer of energy.

Convection currents arise in the atmosphere above warm land masses or seas, giving rise to sea breezes and land breezes, respectively. Convection currents transfer heat from one place to another by mass motion of a fluid such as water, air or molten rock.

It is similar to the latest theory, i. Such patterns of heat flow across other mid-ocean ridges also suggest the same conclusion.Convection currents can be found in the boiling of liquid, the heat of a campfire, the weather, and even the magma in the earth.

Quick Notes Convection currents are formed by the difference in. The convection current hypothesis The convection current hypothesis Knopoff, L. The linear stability problem for a number of models of the mantle of the earth is considered.

Heat Convection in Liquids

For appropriate values of the physical parameters of the mantle it seems likely that the Rayleigh number for mantle‐wide convection is far in excess of.

The convection current hypothesis supposes that convection currents in the Earth's Mantel (the zone below the surface/crust and above the Earth's core) cause the movement of the tectonic plates (plates that make up the surface/crust of the Earth and shift/move on a grand time scale).

This hypothesis fails to explain why mountain-belt patterns are not symmetrical, while the convection cells in a relatively homogeneous earth are believed to be symmetrical. Besides, the materials deep beneath the earth are not quite suitable for the operation of convection currents in them.

The Thermal Convection Current hypothesis dates back to Hopkins () and Fisher (), but credit goes to Arthur Holmes for presenting more elaborately the same as a force for mountain building, continental drift, volcanism and formation of. The model of turbulent convection in the lower mantle is consistent with localizing a material of high strength and high viscosity in the upper mantle and with the observation that earthquakes are not observed to occur in the lower mantle.

Useful notes on Arthur Holme's Thermal Convection Current Hypothesis Download
Convection current hypothesis
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