The ontology-epistemology divide a case study in medical terminology

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Seizures occurring in the context of fever in children are called febrile seizures. Abstract Medical terminology collects and organizes the many different kinds of terms employed in the biomedical domain both by practitioners and also in the course of biomedical research.

The University at Buffalo and Stanford University have established the National Center for Ontological Research NCORwith Buffalo and Stanford as the two principal sites, together with a number of partner institutions drawn from academia, government, and industry. Some names represent invariant features classes, universals of biomedical reality i.

In order to map content of clinical language with classes of a formal ontology, it is necessary to provide a link between the ontology and domain terms. Formal Ontology and Information Systems. Other names, however, convey also how this reality is perceived, measured, and understood by health professionals i.

It is an interesting resource into which a great deal of effort has been invested, but to the best of our knowledge it has not thus far been acknowledged in the literature or been the subject of research.

Taxonomic reasoning is the most important mechanism of machine inference applied to formal ontologies. Vagueness arises for example in the presence of preliminary or incomplete diagnosis, but it is present for many other reasons also.

The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology

Tests are used to diagnose the infection, including direct identification under a microscope and culture of infected fluids. In other cases, however, variant terms do refer to corresponding classes, and to classes which are distinct from those referred to by the underlying root terms.

Gram staining is based on the ability of the bacteria cell wall to retain the crystal violet dye during solvent treatment. InC1 was declared inactivated because of duplication with another class and as a consequence, its associated terms were annotated as being descriptions for a retired class.

Each dictionary entry corresponds to a domain term and is linked to one or to two or more, in the case of polysemous terms class in the ontology.

Definite tubo-ovarian abscess Probable tubo-ovarian abscess Possible tubo-ovarian abscess. For of course the fact of positive or negative identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microscopic examination of bodily fluids does not change the disease in any way it changes neither the corresponding disease class nor the instances by which this class is instantiated.

Diseases of possible viral origin Probable suicide Basal cell tumor, uncertain whether benign or malignant Diarrhea of presumed infectious origin. At this stage of the study, it is too early to make detailed recommendations on how the current mechanism might be improved without impinging negatively on the work that has been done.

A second use case is internal quality control: Such an application may require other resources than terminology resources lexicon, textual synonyms, etc.

In other words, these qualifiers reflect the confidence of the physician at the time the diagnosis is posed, i. Our study conducted thus far is sufficient to show that there is indeed a problem with the sorts of interpretations that can be given to stated changes, and that the nature of the problem is, at least in part, a running together of what is the case and what is believed to be the case, which we have shown to be accompanied with the concept orientation in terminology development.

The same type of modification was applied to all other substances. Both saquinavir mesylate Invirase and saquinavir Fortovase were already approved by the FDA on December 6,and November 7,respectively as antiretroviral protease inhibitors that act by blocking a protein that HIV needs to replicate itself.

The Problem 1 Semantic interoperability and semantic mining.

Would SNOMED CT benefit from Realism-Based Ontology Evolution?

We show that epistemology-loaded terms are pervasive in biomedical vocabularies, that the "classes" they name often do not comply with sound classification principles, and that they are therefore likely to cause problems in the evolution and alignment of terminologies and associated ontologies.

Biomedical terminology reflects not only the various subspecialties of biomedicine roughly corresponding to specialized subdomains or dimensions of biomedical realitybut also the many purposes for which terminologies are developed.

This requires developping terminology services between: Thus the class Colostomy, not otherwise specified, too, shares all the characteristics of the class Colostomy — but it has no additional characteristics either. In the sense that is relevant to our present purposes here, epistemology is the study of biological or medical knowledge.

Authoring and distributing a Value Set. Importing a whole terminological resource Code System. A discussion of the epistemological foundations of "multimethod" research in the social sciences—in as much as such research claims to unearth "causal" relations—therefore cannot avoid the ontological presuppositions or implications of such a discussion.

This class, too, was rendered inactive as a duplicate of C2. This explains the high number of changes in releasein which there were a number of minor concept changes without concept retirement 11, see Table 2. Thus again, it is an epistemological rather than an ontological feature which is here expressed.

From then on, C1 started to lead a life of its own.The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology OIivier Bodenreider, Barry Smith & Anita Burgun In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. The Ontology‐Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology.

In: Proceedings of FOISpp. – IOS Press, Amsterdam () Google Scholar. We identify four cases: 1) terms containing classification criteria, 2) terms reflecting detectability, modality, uncertainty, and vagueness, 3) terms created in order to obtain a complete partition of a given domain, and 4) terms reflecting mere fiat boundaries.

Abstract.

Ontology-based PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Medical terminology collects and organizes the many different kinds of terms employed in the biomedical domain both by practitioners and also in the course of biomedical research. In addition to serving as labels for biomedical classes, these names reflect the organizational principles of.

Below is the recommended use of 'ontology', derived from Barry Smith, Waclaw Kusnierczyk, Daniel Schober, and Werner Ceusters in their paper titled "Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain": The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology.

The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology. OIivier Bodenreider, Barry Smith & Anita Burgun - - In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems.

Proceedings of the Third International Conference (FOIS ). IOS Press.

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The ontology-epistemology divide a case study in medical terminology
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